This text is designed to be used as a supplementary text for any course in which the instructor wants to explore the history of the concept of race in America, the reasons why the concept has no biological validity, and how "race" grew to become accepted as something that virtually everyone regards as self-evident. The first chapter lays out the reasons why the concept is biologically indefensible, and the remainder of the book examines the course of events that created that concept; the journey through time goes from Herodotus through Marco Polo, the Renaissance and the role of the New World, on up to the American Civil War, the curious results of the alliance switch in World War I, Arthur Jensen, the Bell Curve, J. Phillippe Rushton, and the Pioneer
Fund in the 21st century.
1. The Biology of Human Variation
1.1.: Background of a Belief
1.2.: Adaptive Traits: Clines
1.2.2.: Tooth Size
1.2.3.: Hemoglobin S
1.2.4.: Blood Groups
1.2.5.: Clusters and Non-Adaptive Traits
2. The Perception and Human Differences in the Past
2.1.: What Should We Call "Them?"
2.2.: The Peasant Perspective
2.5.: Enlightenment-The "Age of Reason"
2.6.: Science and The Greatness of God
2.7.: The Limits of Reason
2.8.: Linnaeus and Classification
2.8.1.: Linnaeus and the Classification of the Human Species
2.8.2.: The Great Chain of Being
2.9.: Buffon and Continuity
2.10.: Camper and the Facial Angle
2.11.: Assessing the Meaning of Human Differences
3. One Origin or Many?
3.1.: The Roots of "Polygenism"
4. Anthropology in the Enlightenment
4.1.: Blumenbach and "Degeneration"
4.2.: The Scottish Enlightenment Comes to America
4.3.: Samuel Stanhope Smith: "Race" From the Perspective of the American Enlightenment
5. The Triumph of Feeling Over Reason
7. The Founding of the American School of Anthropology
7.1: The Post-Colonial United States of America
7.2.: Samuel George Morton and the American Origin of Biological Anthropology
8. Passing the Torch
8.1.: Louis Agassiz, Archetypical American
9. The Demise of Monogenism and the Rise of Polygenism
9.1.: John Bachman: The Last Monogenist
9.2.: Josiah Clark Nott: The Voice of American Radicalism
9.3.: Scotland: Dr. Robert Knox
9.4.: France: Comte de Gobineau
10. Towards a War Over Slavery and Afterwards
10.1.: George R. Gliddon
10.2.: "Race" and Politics
10.3.: War and Its Aftermath
11. The French Connection
11.1.: Paul Broca and the Professionalization of Biological Anthropology
11.2.: The Demise of the American School of Anthropology
12. The Legacy of the American School in America
12.1.: Nathaniel Southgate Shaler (1841-1906)
12.2.: The First World War
12.3.: The French Connection and the Concept of "Race"
12.4.: William Z. Ripley and the Magic Three
12.5.: Madison Grant
12.6.: Lothrop Stoddard
13. The Ethos of Eugenics
13.2.: Eugenics Exported to America
13.4.: "Race" and Eugenics Applied to the Shaping of America
14. Henry Ford and the Ethos of the Holocaust
14.1.: The Anti-Semitism of Henry Ford
14.2.: The Protocols of the Elders of Zion
15. The Outlook of the Bigot Brigade
15.1.: "Race" and "Intelligence"
15.2.: "Statistical Theology and the Worship of 'g'"
15.3.: Sir Cyril Burt-"Scientific" Fraud
16. The Galtonian Legacy in America
16.1.: World War I
16.2.: "Intelligence" and Immigration
16.3.: Lewis Terman and Genetic Predestination
16.4.: Walter Lippmann Versus the Termanites
17. "Race" in Biological Anthropology
17.1.: Ale Hrdlicka and the Smithsonian: Organizing the Profession
17.2.: Academia and The Patterns of Thought in Biological Anthropology: Sir Arthur Keith
17.3: Keith's Influence on America: Earnest Albert Hooton
17.4.: Carleton Coon on "Race"
17.5.: Science and Society on "Race" After World War II
18. The Legacy of Pioneer Fund
18.1.: The Promotion of "Scientific" Racism
18.3.: Galton and "The Bell Curve"
18.4.: J. Philippe Rushton
18.5.: Richard Lynn